Your devices need to have access to the following domain hosts:
|Europe||Edge container registry||containers.eu-west-1.mbedcloud.com|
|Europe||Edge gateway||https://gateways.eu-west-1.mbedcloud.com and https://edge-k8s.eu-west-1.mbedcloud.com|
|United States||Edge container registry||containers.us-east-1.mbedcloud.com|
|United States||Edge gateway||https://gateways.us-east-1.mbedcloud.com and https://edge-k8s.us-east-1.mbedcloud.com|
To reach these URLs, the devices need to resolve DNS queries. You therefore need to deploy a DNS server in the network or locally, and make it accessible to the devices (usually over port 53).
If you are using a Snap-based Edge distribution you will in addition also need Canonical's services to be accessible. Please read Snapcraft.io documentation for those.
- Devices use port 5684 (UDP or TCP) to communicate with Device Management.
- The traffic must be untampered, see intrusive firewalls.
- The IPs of the Device Management hosts can change. Therefore, you need to make sure your DNS server does not cache records for longer than their time to live (TTL).
Connecting devices behind NAT
If your devices are behind a NAT, we recommend using either CoAP over TCP; or, if you require UDP, a dedicated tunnel between your device gateway and Device Management.
Firewalls that perform TLS inspection act as a man-in-the-middle attack. This is blocked by secure transport protocols such as TLS, DTLS and HTTPS. You can spot such a firewall being in place with a simple test:
openssl s_client -connect bootstrap.us-east-1.mbedcloud.com:5684
Confirm the signing certificate is issued by:
issuer=C = GB, ST = Cambridgeshire, L = Cambridge, O = ARM Ltd, CN = ARM Bootstrap CA
If the issuer is not matching or you get a forbidden/blocked error you need to get your device whitelisted by the network owner for untampered traffic for the IP-addresses listed above.
CoAP over TCP
If your devices are behind NAT or have IPv4 addresses, we recommend using CoAP over TCP because CoAP provides sustained connectivity between client and server, which helps overcome NAT firewall challenges.
You should also consider the power consumption tradeoffs between keeping the connection alive and requiring the device to re-establish the connection to communicate with Device Management when needed, which will also require it to go through the registration process.
There are two ways to keep the connection alive:
At the TCP level, different network operators typically have much shorter
keepalive intervals than the devices; if your device's default
keepalive intervals are longer than the network timeouts, you can configure them from Device Management Client. Device Management Client uses CoAP PING to provide uniform functionality for maintaining TCP connectivity. CoAP PING sends a periodic
Reset Message to maintain the TLS connection. Device Management Client uses the default value of 540 seconds for
You can change this on the application side using the
For example, with the Device Management Client reference example, there are two recommended ways to define these parameters.
Primarily, using the
#define MBED_CLIENT_TCP_KEEPALIVE_INTERVAL 540
Alternatively (works only for Mbed OS), you can specify these parameters in the application
Note: Do not define the parameters in both
mbed_app.json as this will result in duplicate definitions.